PFOS is now regulated as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) in EU. This approach offers opportunities to protect the health of Europe’s citizens and environment at the same time as driving innovation for safer chemicals. 8-12 (DOI: 10.1016/j.coesh.2018.07.004). This adds to the total burden of chemicals to which people are exposed (Evans et al., 2016) and increases the risk of health impacts. Polyfluorinated PFAS contain both fluoro-carbon and hydro-carbon segments where the non-fluorinated part can degrade and ultimately form perfluorinated PFAS acids, such as PFOA and PFOS. Published 1 July 2014 Last updated 7 August 2018 — see all updates WHO, 2017, Keeping our water clean: the case of water contamination in the Veneto Region, Italy, accessed 2 December 2019. WHO IARC, 2017, Some Chemicals Used as Solvents and in Polymer Manufacture,. Synthetic chemicals are all around us. Answer: In the EU, PFOA, its salts and certain related substances are restricted for most uses under Entry 68 of REACH Annex XVII. Member States are due to report on compliance with the PFOS EQS by 2021. Answer: In the EU, PFOA, its salts and certain related substances are restricted for most uses under Entry 68 of REACH Annex XVII. On June 15, 2020 the European Union (EU) published Regulation (EU) 2020/784 to amend Part A of Annex I to Regulation (EU) 2019/1021 on persistent organic pollutants (POP Recast) by adding perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its salts and PFOA-related compounds with specific exemptions on intermediate use or other specifications. Groups that may be exposed to high concentrations of PFAS include workers and people eating or drinking water and foods contaminated via PFAS treated food contact materials (Susmann et al., 2019). The production and use of PFAS in products has resulted in the contamination of drinking water supplies in several European countries. EU, 2006, Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive 1999/45/EC and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 as well as Council Directive 76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC, 93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC (OJ L). Please make sure javascript is enabled in your browser. PFOA, its salts and its precursors have also been used in the past in many industrial processes, commercial products, and products available to consumers. Even a small action can make an enormous difference when millions of people do it! Krafft, M. P. and Riess, J. G., 2015, ‘Per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFASs): Environmental challenges’, Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 20(3), pp. The use of PFOA is prohibited across Europe by the POP Regulation (Reg. The enforcement date is July 4, 2020. in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Spain and Sweden). B., et al., 2020, ‘Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) modify lung surfactant function and pro-inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells’, Toxicology in vitro: an international journal published in association with BIBRA 62, p. 104656 (DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2019.104656). In Germany recommended maximum concentrations for drinking water are available [12, 13]. This website has limited functionality with javascript off. National monitoring activities have detected PFAS in the environment across Europe. Less is known about potential releases of PFAS from other uses such as oil extraction and mining (Kissa, 2001), and the production of medical devices. Other sources include PFAS produced and applied to textiles and paper and painting/printing facilities (Danish EPA, 2014). Throughout life, people and animals accumulate PFAS in their bodies. Perfluorooctanoic acid was also banned under Annex A of the Stockholm Convention in May 2019, with a five-year exemption for certain uses. 46(3), pp. The move towards zero pollution requires that product life cycles are made safer from the start (Warner and Ludwig, 2016), based on the concept of safe-and-circular-by-design (van der Waals et al., 2019). Decreased exposure to PFAS may be achieved by using consumer products from green labels and buying brands free from PFAS. New and legacy chemicals continue to be released into Europe’s environment, adding to the total chemical burden on Europe’s citizens and ecosystems. The BMDL5 reflect the concentration in blood at which critical effects occur (cholesterol effects for adults and immune-toxicity for children) and are the basis for the provisional TWIs for PFOA and PFOS (EFSA, 2018). ... as it did for DuPont’s PFOA, industry in the US and Europe has an ace up its sleeve. Drugs and medical devices may be other sources. On 14 June 2017, the European Union’s restriction on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (CAS no. A Europe-wide regulation is missing so far. Sun, M., et al., 2016, ‘Legacy and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances Are Important Drinking Water Contaminants in the Cape Fear River Watershed of North Carolina’, Environmental Science & Technology Letters 3(12), pp. This draft limit value was exceeded by a factor of 130 for PFOS and 66 for PFOA in samples taken in the Veneto Region. Buekers, J., et al., 2018, ‘Development of Policy Relevant Human Biomonitoring Indicators for Chemical Exposure in the European Population’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(10), p. 2085 (DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15102085). Valsecchi, S., et al., 2013, ‘Determination of perfluorinated compounds in aquatic organisms: a review’, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 405(1), pp. In the EU, PFOA was classified as toxic to reproduction in 2017 and the restriction for PFOA and related substances entered into force in July 2020. Denmark will be the first country to ban PFAS chemicals, which have been linked to cancer, elevated cholesterol and decreased fertility, from food packaging, starting next year. EFSA has proposed to revise the tolerable intakes of two chemical contaminants to which humans are exposed through the food chain as a result of environmental pollution. The European commission has also proposed a drinking water standard of 100 parts per trillion (ppt) for 20 PFAS compounds, with the intention of introducing limits on other chemicals in this class at a later date. At EU level, PFOS is restricted under the EU POPs Regulation (EU, 2019). Annankatu 18, P.O. Perfluoroctansulfonsäure (Anion Perfluoroctansulfonat oder kurz PFOS) ist eine chemische Verbindung aus der Gruppe der per- und polyfluorierte Alkylverbindungen (PFAS). If you have forgotten your password, Direct exposure may also come via skin creams and cosmetics (Danish EPA, 2018; Schultes et al., 2018) or via air from sprays and dust from PFAS-coated textiles. 216-224 (DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq094). As mentioned above, PFOA and PFOS are priority hazardous substances under the Water Framework Directive (EC, 2017; EU, 2000). PFOA perfluoro octanoic acid is een door mensen gemaakte chemische stof, die van nature niet in het milieu voorkomt. Exposure to higher levels PFOA may occur in the workplace where … PFAS is a vast group of fluorinated compounds that have been widely used in industrial and consumer applications including stain- and water-resistant coatings for fabrics and carpets, oil-resistant coatings for paper products approved for food contact, floor polishes, insecticide formulations, fire-fighting foams, and mining and oil well surfactants. Perfluorooctanoic acid was also banned under Annex A of the Stockholm Convention in May 2019, with a five-year exemption for certain uses. Het RIVM Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu heeft in opdracht van het ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat risicogrenzen berekend voor PFOS perfluoroctaansulfonaten, PFOA perfluoro octanoic acid en GenX in grond en bagger. EEA Web Team, Software updated on In Europe, PFOS has been banned since 2008 and PFOA will be totally prohibited by 2020, although right now it’s hard to find a pan that uses Teflon in the old continent. Koponen, J., et al., 2018, ‘Longitudinal trends of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in children’s serum’, Environment International 121, pp. Exposure to higher levels PFOA may occur in the workplace where they are produced or used. The well-known and regularly monitored PFAS (mainly perfluorinated acids) account only for a fraction of the chemical burden from PFAS present in human blood, the environment and wildlife (Koch et al., 2019). In 2019, more than 180 countries agreed to ban production and use of the most notorious PFAS chemical, PFOA, as well as its salts and other PFOA-related compounds. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has initiated a voluntary industry phase-out of PFOA, whereby the major global fluorochemical companies have agreed to eliminate PFOA by 2015. 143-157 (DOI: 10.1007/s00216-012-6492-7). Koch, A., et al., 2019, ‘Towards a comprehensive analytical workflow for the chemical characterisation of organofluorine in consumer products and environmental samples’, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry (DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2019.02.024). Box 400, FI-00121 Helsinki, Finland | Tel. Üblicherweise wird bzw. 1070-1076 (DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1002741). around the globe. 1680-1690 (DOI: 10.1039/C8EM00368H). EU legislation requires that no manufacturer can have a process or put into market any product that has more than 25 parts per billion (ppb) PFOA. PFOA and its salts are likely to have a similar risk profile as PFOS.This is why the European Union is closely following the on-going risk assessment activities and the availability of safer alternatives.When safer alternatives become available, the marketing and use of PFOA will be restricted. Fenton, S. E., et al., 2009, ‘Analysis of PFOA in dosed CD-1 mice. Sign up to receive our news notifications, PFAS is one of the 18 HBM4EU priority substance groups, Screeningsundersøgelse af udvalgte PFAS forbindelser som jord- og grundvandsforurening i forbindelse med punktkilder, Risk assessment of fluorinated substances in cosmetic products, Belysning af destruktion af visse POP-stoffer på konventionelle affaldsforbrændingsanlæg til forbrænding af hovedsageligt ikkefarligt og forbrændingsegnet affald, DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on the quality of water intended for human consumption (recast), The Arctic Environment, European perspectives on a changing Arctic, Risk to human health related to the presence of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid in food, Protecting the sources of our drinking water from mobile chemicals, Fluorine-free firefighting foams (3F) viable alternatives to fluorinated aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF), The cost of inaction - A socioeconomic analysis of environmental and health impacts linked to exposure to PFAS, About PFASs - OECD Portal on Per and Poly Fluorinated Chemicals, Toxicological Profile for Perfluoroalkyls, Safe-by-design for materials and chemicals, Keeping our water clean: the case of water contamination in the Veneto Region, https://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/human/chemicals/emerging-chemical-risks-in-europe, European Environment Information and Observation Network (Eionet), Biodiversity Information System for Europe, European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, Information Platform for Chemical Monitoring, Marine Water Information System for Europe, Fresh Water Information System for Europe. Levels of PFOA in the highly exposed population were 0.2 to 26 times greater than the EFSA BDML5, while for PFOS, the figure was 0.3-1.3 times. EU research projects, such as Human Biomonitoring for Europe (HBM4EU) (Box 2), are currently working to produce a representative picture of PFAS exposure for the European population, as well as investigating links between exposure and health effects. Information on Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), for responding to chemical incidents. The general public is only exposed to trace levels of PFOS or PFOA as contaminants in food and water. PFAS are transferred in the womb from mother to child and unless exposure decreases with age, the PFAS body burden increases due to bioaccumulation (Koponen et al., 2018). EU targets PFASs in drinking water Date: February 7, 2018 Author: colealder 0 Comments “The European Commission has adopted a proposal for a revised drinking water Directive that would, among a number of changes, add limit values for three endocrine disrupting chemicals to the list of criteria for monitoring water quality. Is Teflon banned in Europe? The above mentioned human biomonitoring study in the Veneto Region investigated human exposure to PFOA and PFOS in the period 2015-2016 among 257 Italian residents of contaminated areas and 250 residents of background areas (Ingelido et al., 2018). Over a decade since it came into force, just 43 are ‘banned’ unless specific permission is granted. In 2013, PFOS and its derivatives were included in the Directive on “Environmental Quality Standards” (EQSD). In Europe, PFOS has been banned since 2008 and PFOA will be totally prohibited by 2020, although right now it’s hard to find a pan that uses Teflon in the old continent. The European Union (EU) publishes a list of air carriers that are banned from entering the airspace of any of its member states for failing to meet EU regulatory oversight standards. 757-764 (DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.10.162). In the European Union, PFOS and PFOA are also banned, with certain difficult-to-substitute uses still tolerated until these can be phased out. But there are no such restrictions on this carcinogen in the U.S. EWG found 13 PFAS compounds in nearly 200 cosmetics and other personal care products. PFAS, including PFOA and PFOS, are not listed as CERCLA hazardous substances, but in some circumstances could be responded to as CERCLA pollutants or contaminants. PFOA has been classified as a SVHC since 2013 (EU REACH Reg EC No 206-397-9). In 2018, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) re-evaluated the multiple lines of evidence of PFOA and PFOS toxicities, which resulted in significantly lower provisional ‘safe’ limits, known as the ‘tolerable weekly intake’ (TWI) (EFSA, 2018). The main exposure pathways for human and environmental exposures are shown in Figure 2. De stof is gebruikt voor producten om oppervlakten te beschermen, zoals de behandeling van tapijten en kleding, coatings voor kartonnen verpakkingen en anti-aanbak lagen. 2001, ISBN 0-8247-0472-X.’, Journal of the American Chemical Society 123(36), pp. There has also been movement on the global front. Little Pro on 2017-06-19 Views: Update:2019-11-16. Production and use of PFAShave been the main sources of PFAS contamination over time (Wang et al., 2014a, 2014b; Hu et al., 2016) for instance from fluoropolymer production installations and from the use of PFAS-containing firefighting foams (Figure 1). Beginning in July 2020, the use of PFOA – one of the thousands of fluorinated compounds known as PFAS – will be restricted in cosmetics and other personal care products sold in the EU. (2013/39/EU). In the EU… PFAS are a group of organic chemicals that contain a stable (unreactive) fluoro-carbon segment. PFOA and other PFAS chemicals are extremely persistent in the environment, thanks to a special carbon-fluorine bond. EFSA, 2018, Risk to human health related to the presence of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid in food, accessed 2 December 2019. German EPA, J., 2018, ‘PFC-Planet: Chemikalien in der Umwelt’, Umweltbundesamt, accessed 2 December 2019. When you ask about the most popular cookware type with no health risk, then you may be … EC, 2019, Towards a Sustainable Chemicals Policy Strategy of the Union - Council conclusions (10713/19). Engineered by: PFAS water pollution has been identified in countries across Europe, including Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, as well as outside the EU. Ingelido, A. M., et al., 2018, ‘Biomonitoring of perfluorinated compounds in adults exposed to contaminated drinking water in the Veneto Region, Italy’, Environment International 110(October 2017), pp. Jan. 27, 2006 - Chemical industry leaders have agreed to an EPA plan to phase out a chemical used to make Teflon, microwave popcorn bags, waterproof clothing, and many other products. This specific carbon-fluorine bond is one of the strongest bonds in nature. Sørli, J. Areas around industrial production, manufacturing and application sites have been found to be particularly contaminated by PFAS. Hu, X. C., et al., 2016, ‘Detection of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in U.S. 1803-1815 (DOI: 10.1039/C9EM00163H). Eschauzier, C., et al., 2012, ‘Impact of Treatment Processes on the Removal of Perfluoroalkyl Acids from the Drinking Water Production Chain’, Environ. investigated by HBM4EU to better understand exposure and effects on health. Learn More OK This includes the regulation of PFAS as a class, or as subgroups, based on toxicity or chemical similarities. Danish EPA, 2014, Screeningsundersøgelse af udvalgte PFAS forbindelser som jord- og grundvandsforurening i forbindelse med punktkilder, Miljøprojekt No 1600. Costs to society arising from PFAS exposure are high, with the annual health-related costs estimated to be EUR 52-84 billion across Europe in a recent study (Nordic Council of Ministers, 2019). For the general population, PFAS sources include drinking water, food, consumer products and dust (EFSA, 2018). Nguyen, M. A., et al., 2017, ‘Spatial distribution and source tracing of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface water in Northern Europe’, Environmental Pollution 220, pp. PFOA and its precursors are currently restricted under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation (EU, 2006), including their presence in products made or imported into the EU. How can we limit the negative effects of chemicals that have become a part of our current way of life? 206-397-9) listed or regulated under the EU REACH regulation? “EU wants ban on persistent organic pollutant.” ENDS Europe. +358 9 686180 | Fax +358 9 68618210 | echa.europa.eu While both well-known and novel PFAS have been detected in drinking water in non-EU countries (Xiao, 2017; Kaboré et al., 2018; Dauchy, 2019), at present there is little monitoring data available in the EU for drinking water. Using PFAS-free personal care products and cooking materials and avoiding direct contact with PFAS-containing products helps to reduce exposure. Information on Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), for responding to chemical incidents. Numata, J., et al., 2014, ‘Toxicokinetics of Seven Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonic and Carboxylic Acids in Pigs Fed a Contaminated Diet’, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62(28), pp. PFAS are a group of more than 4 700 man-made chemicals (OECD, 2018), the two most well-known of which are perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) (Box 1). PFOS Restriction Limits in EU. For references, please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/human/chemicals/emerging-chemical-risks-in-europe or scan the QR code. A positive step from the industry, considering PFOA and PFOA-related compounds have been banned in the EU since July 4, 2020, while short-chain PFAS, known as perfluorooctane sulfonates (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid) (PFOS,) have been restricted for over ten years. Where are PFAS found in Europe’s environment? 192-212 (DOI: 10.1016/j.cocis.2015.07.004). Sources: US National Toxicology Program, (2016); C8 Health Project Reports, (2012); WHO IARC, (2017); Barry et al., (2013); Fenton et al., (2009); and White et al., (2011). In Part A of Annex I to Regulation (EU) 2019/1021, the following entry is added: Substance CAS No EC No Specific exemption on intermediate use or other specification “Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its salts and PFOA-related compounds Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its salts and PFOA-related compounds”means the following: (EU) 2019/1021). PFOA was identified as a PBT substance in the EU in 2013. Wang, Z., et al., 2014b, ‘Global emission inventories for C4–C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, part II: The remaining pieces of the puzzle’, Environment International 69, pp. Several PFAS are on the Community Rolling Action Plan for evaluation over the coming years. At EU level, PFOS is restricted under the EU POPs Regulation (EU, 2019). In the EU, manufacture and essentially all uses of PFOS are now prohibited under a Directive (2006/122/EC) that came into force in June 2008. Such costs are currently difficult to assess since information on the number and scale of sites contaminated with PFAS in Europe and on how PFAS impact ecosystems is lacking. Regulation (EU) No 207/2011: entries 44 and 53 have been are deleted (substances severely restricted under Regulation (EU) No 850/2004 – substances as persistent organic pollutants). OECD, 2018, ‘About PFASs - OECD Portal on Per and Poly Fluorinated Chemicals’, accessed 2 December 2019. From 4 July 2020, PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), its salts and other compounds related to PFOA are banned under Annex XVII, entry 68 of REACH. Gebbink, W. A., et al., 2017, ‘Presence of Emerging Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in River and Drinking Water near a Fluorochemical Production Plant in the Netherlands’, Environmental Science & Technology 51(19), pp. In the EU, PFOA was classified as toxic to reproduction in 2017 and the restriction for PFOA and related substances entered into force in July 2020. It was then included in the candidate list of substances of very high concern. EFSA has proposed to revise the tolerable intakes of two chemical contaminants to which humans are exposed through the food chain as a result of environmental pollution. substances and PFOA. POP stands for “Persistent Organic Pollutants”. EEA Plone KGS 20.12.5. PFOA, its salts and its precursors were added to Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999, also called the List of Toxic Substances. In Europe some national regulatory activities are present for PFOA, i.e. 415-419 (DOI: 10.1021/acs.estlett.6b00398). Danish EPA, 2019, Belysning af destruktion af visse POP-stoffer på konventionelle affaldsforbrændingsanlæg til forbrænding af hovedsageligt ikkefarligt og forbrændingsegnet affald, No 2085, accessed 2 December 2009. Schultes, L., et al., 2018, ‘Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and fluorine mass balance in cosmetic products from the Swedish market: implications for environmental emissions and human exposure’, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 20(12), pp. van der Waals, J., et al., 2019, Safe-by-design for materials and chemicals, Zenodo, accessed 2 December 2019. 482-495 (DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.07.024). Some countries have set national limit values for water and soil (Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden), for textiles (Norway) and for food contact materials (Denmark). EU REACH - Specific Questions & Situations. On 14 June 2017, the European Union’s restriction on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (CAS no. 80-90 (DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2017.05.004). This stipulated that foam extinguishing agents containing PFOA may no longer be sold from July 4, 2020. Denmark will be the first country to ban PFAS chemicals, which have been linked to cancer, elevated cholesterol and decreased fertility, from food packaging, starting next year. This has led to contaminated drinking water around factories in Belgium, Italy and the Netherlands, and around airports and military bases in Germany, Sweden and the United Kingdom (IPEN, 2018; Hu et al., 2016). Denmark went so far as to ban all PFAS from food packaging. The EEA is an agency of the European Union. We can categorise pollution by where we find it — in soil, water or air — or we can look at different pollution types, such as chemicals. En blusstoffen ) kitchen utensils or abrasive scouring pads men generally have higher PFAS body burdens serum... 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