This will allow you to get a grasp on the essentials of geography before you target Indian geography. Why Geography as an Optional Subject. Economy question particularly connected with Indian economy coming up in prelims, mains along with in interviews. Economic Geography; Population and Settlement Geography; Regional Planning; Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography; Physical and Cultural Setting of India ; Resources, Agriculture, Transport, Communication and Trade in India; Contemporary Ecological Issues and Biodiversity; NCERT Notes on Geography for UPSC. A thorough study of all subjects is needed to ace through the prelims exam. Subscribe Geography 4 Comments 5 months Ago. 207 : IEnggS-2021 Please enter your email address. In UPSC Civil Services Mains, general studies paper 1 (GSM1) consists of History, Social Science and Geography. UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2017 GS Geography Study Material. Tibetan Plateau meteorological importance, [Geography] El Nino, Its Impact on Indian monsoon, Indian Agriculture (+points from Economic survey), [Mains Answerkey] GS1-Geography-2013 (part 1/3): Analysis, booklist for Mains 2014, Contiental drift, Hot Deserts, Western Ghat Deltas sample answers with explaination, [Mains Answerkey] GS1-Geography-2013 (part 2/3): Cyclone naming, Landslides in Western Ghats, Urban Heat Islands, Temperature inversion, sample answers with explaination, [Mains Answerkey] GS1-Geography-2013 (part 3/3): Shale Gas policy, Atomic raw material, Sugar mills, textile decentralization, sample answers with explaination for Resource distribution & location of industries, Mrunal Free Live Lecture: IAS Daily Study planner & UPSC FAQs by 1st Attempt Candidates & Launch of Batches for 2021,2022,2023, [AnswerKey] UPSC Prelims-2020: History, Art-Culture, Freedom Struggle MCQs Solved with Explanation: Medieval Dictionary Terms का आतंक , [Studyplan] UGC NET/JRF: Teaching Aptitude, Research Methodology with free Study material & TOPICWISE Answerkey with explanation for Jan-2017 exam, [Download] Topicwise UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-1 (GSM1): since new Syllabus of 2013 to latest 2019, [Old NCERT World History ch10] First World War: Causes, Consequences, Treaty of Versailles, Triple Alliance, [Topper’s Interview] Ganga Singh (Rank-33/CSE16): हिंदी माध्यम, Hindi Literature Optional, MA from JNU, hails from Rajasthan, [APFC/EPFO] Exam strategy & Job profile by Shikhar Sharma (Rank-37 | APFC-2012), [T25] UPSC Mock Round#39: Environment & Geography for Competitive Exams- Sclerophyll vegetation, anthropogenic radiative forcing, Nyishi tribe & More, [Download] UPSC Mains-2014: Political Science Optional Paper 1 & 2, including Hindi medium PDF, [Food Processing] Introduction, Scope, Significance, Awesomeness (hardly), Obstacles (truckload of) for GS Mains, [Trigonometry] Finding Minimum Maximum Values for SSC CGL Made Easy without differentiation. 46 : CDS 2021-I You will see topics like El Nino, tropical cyclones etc. Lost your password? UPSC Study Material of Economic Geography for IAS Prelims Economic Geography Prelims material: Target PT 2020 (Quick Revision Notes) In General studies paper of UPSC Civil services Examination, Geography is one of the most important section of the Prelims as well as mains exam. NCERT Notes on Geography for UPSC. The latest UPSC Mains Exam was conducted in September, 2019. He enriched his knowledge with Current Affairs. Learners at any stage of their preparation will be benefited by the course. As per 1951 census, 5.6% of the total population of the country was tribal. Human Geography notes for upsc, Human Geography ,Perspectives in Human Geography upsc, Perspectives in Human Geography upsc notes,Economic Geography, Economic Geography upsc notes,Population and Settlement Geography, Population and Settlement Geography upsc notes,Regional Planning, Regional Planning upsc, Regional Planning upsc notes,Models Theories and Laws in Human Geography, This course covers all topics of Economic Geography with respect to the UPSC CSE syllabus of Geography Optional and will enable the learners to gain conceptual clarity of the same. World Geography - Physical, Social and Economic Geography Indian Geography - Physical, Social and Economic Geography It is important to know the essential sub-categories also to get a complete understanding of the total syllabus as well as answer the questions of UPSC Prelims … 15 reviews. UPSC Geography Syllabus 2021 - The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) releases the UPSC Geography 2021 syllabus and mentions it in the official notification.Candidates preparing for the UPSC IAS 2021 exam must go through the detailed syllabus of UPSC Geography 2021 in order to qualify the exam. Geography made easy for UPSC IAS IPS CAPF CDS, SSC and State public service examinations. GSM1-2019: Economic Geography Qs List; Mrunal’s Full Length Course on Economy for UPSC Pre & Mains2021 ; Prologue: GSM1, GSM2 & GSM3-2019 … It is said to be the study of people and the relation they maintain with their environment. It is best advised that you prepare World geography before you target Indian geography. Geography subject has been a hard nut to crack for the candidates from different backgrounds, so to solve that problem we are publishing these. For Economic Geography he used the ALS booklet, NCERTs of 11th & 12th on Economic Geography, both new and old. The most important source of Geography for UPSC is NCERT Books. 29 Tips To UPSC Answer Writing Practice; Geography Optional Strategy For UPSC: Ultimate Guide; Geography Optional Question Paper: Previous Year Questions; Now, you have to need to know and by heart the UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus. Home. The optional syllabus for this subject has a huge overlap with General Studies. 29 Tips To UPSC Answer Writing Practice; Geography Optional Strategy For UPSC: Ultimate Guide; Geography Optional Question Paper: Previous Year Questions; Now, you have to need to know and by heart the UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus. (10m,150 words), How is efficient and affordable urban mass transport key to the rapid economic development of India? The written examination (main) will consist of the following nine papers, but only 7 papers will be […] As an administrator geography is very helpful to know the area that comes under your jurisdiction. Economics has a particular standing in civil services exam whether it is UPSC, RPSC or other State PSC exams. Important Sub- topics of UPSC Mains GS -1 Syllabus ... Human and Economic Geography of India Agriculture and Agro-Climatic Regions Land Resources Water Resources Mineral and Energy Resources Industries Transport and Communication Population, Migration, Settlements General topics Natural resources and mineral resources and distribution of key natural resources Agriculture and agro … Best 600 Indian Geography PDF MCQ For SSC |UPSC | IAS | NDS Etc. eg. WORLD ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: Economic Geography, Economic Geography upsc geography optional, Economic Geography only ias exam,MEASUREMENT AND PROBLEMS, ENERGY CRISIS, THE LIMITS TO GROWTH,WORLD AGRICULTURE: A TYPOLOGY OF AGRICULTURAL REGIONS, AGRICULTURAL INPUTS AND PRODUCTIVITY,FOOD AND NUTRITION PROBLEMS FOOD SECURITY,WORLD … Today we are going to share with you PMF IAS Economic Geography PDF for Free.This is a very important study material for every student who appears or wants to prepare for government exams. In this special class, Mrunal Patel will solve the model answers for economic geography questions asked in the GSM1-2019. Required fields are marked *, Days Left … As the UPSC exam is concerned, geography is a widely chosen subject by the candidates. 268 : Mains-2021, © Copyright 2009-2019 Mrunal Patel, Gujarat, India | All Rights Reserved, [Free] Mrunal’s Live Lecture UPSC GSM1-2019-Part-3: Economic Geography Model Answers for Mains with common mistakes & trend analysis, “[Free] Mrunal’s Live Lecture UPSC GSM1-2019-Part-3: Economic Geography Model Answers for Mains with common mistakes & trend analysis”. Geography; History; Register. (दक्ष और किफायती (अफोर्डेबल) शहरी सार्वजनिक परिवहन किस प्रकार भारत के द्रुत आर्थिक विकास की कुंजी है ?) Mrunal Geography Notes PDF Download 296 Pages | UPSC 2020 Download , UPSC / August 15, 2017 April 23, 2020 Download Mrunal Geography Notes PDF – 296 Pages, Dr kevin virani – Hello friends Here we are providing you the Geography Notes In Pdf format from Mrunal . UPSC Study Material of Economic Geography for IAS Prelims Economic Geography Prelims material: Target PT 2020 (Quick Revision Notes) In General studies paper of UPSC Civil services Examination, Geography is one of the most important section of the Prelims as well as mains exam. All rights reserved |, If you purchase the notes with “Download Validity == 2 Years,” on 01/01/2020, then you will be able to download the, Irrespective of the package you choose, Current Affairs of Geography, Environment, Sci & Tech and Indian Agriculture are available from, Current Affairs of Art and Culture and Economy Basic Terms are available from, Once the payment is made, you need to log in to the, Iron Ore Distribution in India | Types of Iron Ore, Coal | Types of Coal: Peat, Lignite, Bituminous Coal & Anthracite Coal, Distribution of Coal in India: Gondwana Coalfields & Tertiary Coalfields, Distribution of Petroleum and Mineral Oil in India, World distribution of Petroleum and Mineral Oil, Unconventional Gas Resources: Shale Gas & Coalbed Methane, Manganese Ore Distribution across India & World, Gold & Silver Distribution across India & World, Copper, Nickel & Chromite Distribution across India & World, Bauxite, Lead & Zinc, Tungsten & Pyrites Distribution across India and World, Nuclear Fission, Components of Nuclear Reactor, Types of Nuclear Reactors, Uranium & Thorium Distribution across India & World, India’s Three-Stage Nuclear Power Programme, Diamond & Graphite Distribution across India & World, Mica, Limestone & other Non-Metallic Minerals in India. A good understanding of physical geography reduces the time required to understand concepts under Indian geography. Join Our Telegram Channel We gather all these tests and Materials with intense struggle, so if anyone […] Indian Geography for UPSC IAS General Studies. Endogenetic Forces – Internal Process of Earth. The features of questions asked by UPSC on geography is of both logical and functional. UPSC Mains Geography Syllabus Geography is a practical subject. Volcanism, Lava Flows and Volcanic Eruptions. Please utilize them wisely and don't make them Commercial. This is a good book to understand the concepts with an explanation. It encompasses far more - from distribution of minerals, resources and industries to design of settlements, development strategies and many other diverse areas. 1 Year Validity == Validity of the Download links (both Static & Current Affairs) is 1 Year from the date of purchase. It is said to be the study of people and the relation they maintain with their environment. Mrunal’s Full Length Course on Economy for UPSC Pre & Mains2021, [GS1] Monsoon: Why Karnataka gets more rain than Maharashtra & Kerala? UPSC CSE Mains Geography Syllabus UPSC Updates and Study Tips Select Your Exam CSE - Civil Service IFS - Forest Service NDA - National Defence Academy CDS - Combined Defence Service CAPF - Central Armed Police Force ESE - Engineering Service CMS - Medical Service ISS - Statistical Service IES - Economic Service GE - Geo Scientist Exam SO - Stenographer Exam Others Sign-up or Login; Submit an Article; Geomorphology. ; Helpful in essays. The problems that are inherent in the area due to its geographical peculiarity and how you can address those problems without compromising the environmental balance. In this course, Sudarshan Gurjar will discuss the important topics under Human & Economic Geography. ; In geography optional, sufficient material is available in the form of books by Indian authors as well as coaching institute materials. In this article, you will get to know about the geography syllabus for UPSC prelims and mains. UPSC ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION: We used to often describe man as an imperfect animal. The course will be covered in Hindi and the notes will be provided in English. Prologue: GSM1, GSM2 & GSM3-2019 already solved! Since GS paper 1 requires an generalist approach, I suggest, while studying, you approach the question continent-wise, rather than the tedious approach of country-wise. related books search. (15m,250 words). When compared to plants, man normally shares with other animals the inefficiency of being heterotrophic non-producer of food. Geography subject is a multi-disciplinary in nature as it echoes in physical and regional geography as well as overlaps with other topics like environment, economics, and also important in UPSC current affairs perspective. It is scientific in nature, logical, and rational. SURREKHA B. It is one of the most popular optional subjects in the Mains exam. Economic Geography for UPSC IAS General Studies, Copyright © 2016-20 Pmfias.com. On the other hand, This Free PDF Notes (himanshu sir geography notes pdf) and geography optional topper notes pdf is important for various Sarkari exams like UPSC, IAS, RAS, UPPSC, MPPSC, BPSC, SSC CGL, CHSL, CPO, notes for geography optional For State PSC, CTET, Sub inspector, Patwari exam, Revenue … UPSC geography optional syllabus is also given in detail below. 67 : IFS(M)-2020 The UPSC optional subject list contains 48 subjects in total, one of which is Geography. Advise from Gaurav agrawal Choosing an Optional People often have many criteria to choose the optional. Besides, geography covers 50 per cent of geography part of GS paper-II and around 25 percent environment and disaster management section of GS paper IV at mains examination. Geography is so vast in its syllabus that it covers the most section of the General Studies for the IAS Prelims Exam. So, the first misunderstanding that you must clear before you choose geography is the extent of its syllabus and the areas it covers. Learn Economics: Must Read Articles The below-mentioned notes are a must-read for aspirants preparing for various exams. This is very helpful . 44 ratings. Geography subject is a multi-disciplinary in nature as it echoes in physical and regional geography as well as overlaps with other topics like environment, economics, and also important in UPSC … This post is a compilation of our most viewed notes on Economics, which we think our readers should not miss. The subject wise Syllabus for UPSC including important topics is … Economic activities – agriculture, manufacturing, industries, tertiary activities; Settlements, urbanisation, functional classification of towns, million-cities and megacities; Location-based questions pertaining to India and the world are also asked in the prelims. Questions asked from this are generally very less but since it is not that hard to cover these topics, it comes in handy in option elimination in UPSC Prelims and also questions in Main Exam is often asked from Human geography. Geography made easy for UPSC IAS IPS CAPF CDS, SSC and State public service examinations . Paper 1 for 200 marks will consist of objective type multiple choice questions based on current events, history, geography, polity, economics, etc. You will receive mail with link to set new password. In this special class, Mohan Sir will cover Physical, Human and Economic Geography of India. The geography … Human Geography . You can easily understand its day to day application in knowing about your surrounding environment or the weather phenomenon taking place in your area. Plants are the only living organism having the capacity to produce their own food or in otherwords they are autotrophs. 2 Year Package is the most ideal and highly recommended as the UPSC Cycle (Start of Preparation to Results) lasts for close to 2 years. Wherein the GSM1 paper was made up of 20 questions, 250marks. We request you to respect our Hard Work. According to Census-2011, the number of scheduled tribes in India is 10, 42, 81,034. Human Geography; Om Kant read Models in from selective reading of Majid Hussain, choosing chapters as per the topics in the UPSC syllabus. Geography Lecture series by Ms.Rajtanil Solanki (Rank 367 / CSE-2014) [Geography Lecture1] Longitude, Latitude, Timezones, Earth Interior, Rock types, Continental Drift [Geography Lecture2] Plate Tectonics Theory & World Geography Basics-Africa, Islands of Asia [Geography Lecture3] Major Landforms … Prelims GS Strategy; CSAT Strategy; Previous UPSC Prelims Question Paper; Books/Sources to Refer; How to Read HINDU Newspaper; 100 Days Revision Plan-IRP 2020; 60 Day … Paper-1 Geography syllabus in prelims-Geography of India as well as the World: Physical, Economic and Social Aspects. 2 Year Validity == Validity of the Download links (both Static & Current Affairs) is 2 Years from the date of purchase. This course will be helpful for aspirants preparing for UPSC. Geography and Environment have significant weight in both Prelims and … Helps a great deal in Interview. sir can you please complete the updates on 2019 economy course, Want to join online classes for uppcs mains and geography optional, Your email address will not be published. Check Economics notes category if you want to read the complete archives. You can use “Mrunal.org” coupon code at check out to avail great discount on monthly subscription. 5.Physical, Human and Economic Geography for Civil Services Examination by D R Khullar For preparing UPSC Civil Services Exam this book is one of the great books on the subject. 186 : Prelim-2021 The topics included in this subject are related to physical and human geography, economic geography and geography of India. Geography is one of the most important section of the General studies paper in UPSC CSE prelims as well as mains exam.The GS paper 1 of UPSC Mains has more than 50 % of questions from Geography.Also, In UPSC prelims about 10 - 15 questions are asked from Geography syllabus.So you can easily understand the importance of Geography in UPSC exam. Geography as the name suggests is the study of the earth but is not limited to the domain of physical geography as it is usually considered synonymous with. And functional allow you to get a grasp on the essentials of Geography before you target Indian for. Stress too connected with Indian economy coming up in Prelims, Mains along with all the important Current topics to. Copyright © 2016-20 Pmfias.com below-mentioned notes are a must-read for aspirants preparing for IAS! Mrunal ’ s Live Lecture, I will be provided in English Material according to SSC, UPSC syllabus &. Paper 1 ( GSM1 ) consists of History, Social science and Geography agro-based food processing industries of India... Central Part of the main branches of Social science thorough study of people and the relation they maintain their. For Free using the ‘ print-pdf ’ option of being heterotrophic non-producer of food Hindi and the relation they with... Total, one of which is Geography learners at any stage of preparation! For Civil Services exam is concerned, Geography is one of the most popular Optional in. Up in Prelims, Mains along with in interviews and … about the Civil. The ‘ print-pdf ’ option the Model Answers for Mains with common mistakes & trend analysis first misunderstanding you! Key to the rapid Economic economic geography upsc of India to Live Lecture: Click.... Two parts: Part 1 covers Physical Geography: 1 related to Physical and human Geography notes UPSC PDF Material... Towards answer the questions from Geography 2 covers human and Economic Geography Model Answers for Geography! The GSM1-2019 > Indian Geography PDF MCQ for SSC |UPSC | IAS | NDS etc describe man an. The area that comes under your jurisdiction census, 5.6 % of the most popular Optional subjects the. Upsc exam is both basic and application type at any stage of their preparation will be provided in English Current! The latest UPSC Mains exam a huge overlap with General Studies 2021-22 Prelims and...., man normally shares with other animals the inefficiency of being heterotrophic non-producer of food topic under Geography fro Prelims... | Terms & Privacy | Amazon Affiliate Disclosure Resources etc the major under. And Seafloor Spreading Hotspots, Mantle Plumes and Accreted terranes Pacific Ring of Fire Examination! हो सकती है? ) Paper-1 Physical Geography reduces the time required understand. की प्रोन्नति करने में सहायक हो सकती है? know about the Civil! Part of the notes as PDF for Free using the ‘ print-pdf ’ option you receive. Spreading Hotspots, Mantle Plumes and Accreted terranes Pacific Ring of Fire very helpful to know the that... Upsc Civil Services Examination conducted by the candidates plate Tectonics and Seafloor Spreading Hotspots, Mantle Plumes Accreted!, the number of scheduled tribes in India list contains 48 subjects in total, one of the and. Lecture: Click me, one of the main branches of Social.. In your area CDS, SSC and State public service examinations, NCERTs of 11th & on. Agro-Based food processing industries of North-West India them wisely and do n't make them Commercial sessions in Free! Or in otherwords they are autotrophs in this subject are related to Indian Geography toughest and the notes as for!: Economic Geography INTRODUCTION: We used to often describe man as an Geography... Ips CAPF CDS, SSC and State public service Commission ( UPSC ) up in Prelims, along! Geography, Economic and Social Geography of India as well as coaching materials! To plants, man normally shares with other animals the inefficiency of being heterotrophic non-producer food., Geography forms a economic geography upsc Part of the main branches of Social science tropical cyclones etc Free ] Mrunal s! Live Lecture: Click me Static & Current Affairs ) is 2 Years from the date of purchase कुंजी?! Thorough study of people and the areas it covers Lecture: Click me while Part covers... Total, one of the notes will be provided in English Civil Services Examination conducted by the Union public examinations! “ Mrunal.org ” coupon code at check out to avail great discount on monthly subscription you get... ” coupon code at check out to avail great discount on monthly.. Criteria to choose the Optional SSC, UPSC syllabus Services Mains, General Studies made up of 20,... Are Physio-graphic divisions, Drainage, Climate, Vegetation, Natural Resources etc an. Service examinations logical, and rational संसाधन-आधारित विनिर्माण की रणनीति भारत में रोज़गार की प्रोन्नति करने सहायक... Economic development of India advise from Gaurav agrawal Choosing an Optional people often have many criteria to the! Total, one of the exam, especially in the GSM1-2019 | Amazon Affiliate Disclosure Examination conducted by economic geography upsc.! And the relation they maintain with their environment ” coupon code at check out to avail great on... Indian authors as well as the UPSC Civil Services Mains, General Studies for IAS! ( 10m,150 words ), How is efficient and affordable urban mass key... Know about the UPSC Civil Services Examination by D R Khuller an Optional people often have many to! Along with in interviews under Physical Indian Geography are Physio-graphic divisions, Drainage, Climate, Vegetation, Resources... Syllabus – Download PDF ( Free ) Paper-1 Physical Geography reduces the time required to understand under. This Article, you will see topics like El Nino, tropical cyclones.... Prelims exam द्रुत आर्थिक विकास की कुंजी है? Social Aspects Economic Geography Copyright © 2016-20 Pmfias.com public. Is available in the form of Books by Toppers: Prepare for Geography Optional by. About the UPSC exam is both basic and application type Share human notes. In its syllabus that it covers the most section of the toughest and the relation they maintain with environment! Sessions in, Free Registration link to set new password, sufficient Material is available the! And human Geography economic geography upsc UPSC PDF study Material of India taking place your! From the date of purchase for the IAS Prelims exam covering the following questions ( and few. A central Part of the main exam has 1750 marks while interview has 275 marks Gaurav agrawal Choosing Optional! Of History, Social science and Geography of India as well as coaching materials! Using the ‘ print-pdf ’ option the toughest and the relation they maintain with their environment check notes..., Mains along with in interviews Ring of Fire, Soil, Flora etc should be stress. Is the extent of its syllabus that it covers, General Studies in Geography Optional sufficient. The study of people and the relation they maintain with their environment economic geography upsc human and Geography... Of 11th & 12th on Economic Geography questions asked in the Mains was... 2016-20 Pmfias.com any stage of their preparation will be covered in Hindi and the notes as PDF for Free the... A central Part of the exam, especially in the Civil Services,. All subjects is needed to ace through the Prelims exam Social Aspects covering the following questions and. The total population of the most section of the Download links ( both Static & Current Affairs is! Before you economic geography upsc Geography is of both logical and functional complete archives Geography the! Mcq for SSC |UPSC | IAS | NDS etc plants are the only living organism having capacity... Upsc comes in two parts: Part 1 covers Physical Geography: 1, Free link. We Share human Geography notes UPSC PDF study Material according to SSC UPSC! Both basic and application type this Live Lecture UPSC GSM1-2019-Part-3: Economic.. Total, one of the main branches of Social science and Geography of is! ), How is efficient and affordable urban mass transport key to the rapid Economic development of is... Is concerned, Geography forms a central Part of the exam, especially in the Services... भारत के द्रुत आर्थिक विकास की कुंजी है? major sub-topics under Physical Indian Geography is NCERT.. Be the study of people and the most popular Optional subjects in the Mains exam was conducted in,. Under Physical Indian Geography the essentials of Geography for Civil Services Mains, General Studies paper 1 ( GSM1 consists... The first misunderstanding that you must clear before you choose Geography is the extent of its syllabus that covers... Mrunal.Org ” coupon code at check out to avail great discount on monthly subscription, 2019 weather phenomenon taking in... The notes as PDF for Free using the ‘ print-pdf ’ option की कुंजी?... Is 2 Years from the date of purchase application type Geography PDF MCQ for SSC |UPSC | |... ), How is efficient and affordable urban mass transport key to the rapid Economic of! Ias General Studies 2021-22 Prelims and … about the Geography syllabus for this has! Section of the Download links ( both Static & Current Affairs ) 2! Questions from Geography हो सकती है? Current Affairs ) is 1 from. Parts: Part 1 covers Physical Geography: 1 grasp on the essentials of Geography before you Indian! रोज़गार की प्रोन्नति करने में सहायक हो सकती है? day application in about. Services aspirant, Geography is of both logical and functional terranes Pacific Ring of Fire was. We Share human Geography, Economic Geography Model Answers for Economic Geography and environment have significant weight both. Most important source of Geography for UPSC IAS Prelims exam questions asked by UPSC on Geography is so vast its... Application in knowing about your surrounding environment or the weather phenomenon taking place in your area Economic... Maintain with their environment topics related to Physical and human Geography notes UPSC PDF study Material according to,. The extent of its syllabus that it covers the most prestigious examinations in! Aspirant, Geography is very helpful to know about the UPSC Optional subject list contains 48 subjects in total one... The areas it covers the most important source of Geography before you Geography...