70% of Gunung Palung National Park's lowland buffer zone was deforested in just four years, 1998-2002. Deforestation: University of Maryland, Google, USGS and NASA analysis of satellite imagery; Global Forest Watch Popi arrived at the Center for Orangutan Protection (COP) when she was a few weeks old. Borneo is the third largest island in the world and has a biodiverse ecosystem which makes it the habitat for animals that cannot be found anywhere else. More on logging. Tropical peatlands, which form over hundreds of years, are giant stores of carbon. During the recent ice ages of the Pleistocene and the Holocene separation from the mainland caused extinctions and speciation of fauna on the island.. The high complexity of the Bornean tropical rain forest … Oil palm plantations are the main driver of deforestation in Borneo. These included emissions reductions targets, government procurement policies and corporate zero-deforestation commitments, and goals to set aside protected areas and restore degraded lands.- COVID-19 upended everything: Nowhere — not even tropical rainforests — escaped the effects of the global pandemic. ... Madagascar and Borneo. Without access to electricity, life in a small indigenous community tucked away deep in Borneo’s rainforest could feel far removed from the bustling markets and gleaming hotels in the capital of Malaysia’s Sabah state, just 20 kilometres away as the crow flies. These include nine forest areas in Latin America, eight in Africa, and seven in Asia and Oceania.- Using five satellite-based datasets, the report finds 43 million hectares (166,000 square miles) of deforestation during the period. The World Bank Group: Transmigration in Indonesia. - A new animated short film from Mongabay, illustrated by artist Roger Peet, depicts the Sumatran rhino’s slide toward extinction.- No more than 80 Sumatran rhinos are believed to survive today, scattered across isolated and fragmented habitats in Indonesia.- Driven to the brink of extinction by habitat loss and hunting, Sumatran rhinos today face an even more fundamental threat: experts fear that too few calves are being born to offset even natural deaths in the remaining populations. MacKinnon et al. Between 2000 and 2017, 6.04 million hectares of old-growth forest were lost in Borneo, a decline of … Candid Animal Cam heads to Southeast Asia (04 Aug 2020 06:37:32 +0000) Fires in peat swamps are difficult to extinguish because they can burn below ground virtually undetected. As planetary health professionals, we seek solutions that … ... Madagascar and Borneo. Several distinct ecosystems are found across Borneo. A 2005 report from WWF explained why fires are so damaging in Borneo: Poaching is a significant issue for wildlife in Borneo. In recent years however, the system has been breaking down due to land-use change. Curran found that seed production fell from 175 pounds per acre in 1991 to 16.5 pounds per acre in 1998, even though it was a one of the strongest El Niño years on record. That being said, there are reasons to suspect that 2020’s forest loss will again be substantial. Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of the ubiquitous oil, which is found in nearly every household item from bread to chocolate to shampoo. August 13, 2019. and fires. Some scientists fear that fires and climate change could be a positive feedback loop that only worsens conditions, producing ever drier climate, more frequent fires, and higher carbon emissions. Deforestation began in earnest during the mid-twentieth century with the establishment of rubber plantations, though these had a limited impact. The causes of deforestation in Borneo are not complex; but the solutions are. The prevalence of Dipterocarps gives Borneo's forests an unusual dynamic that is tightly linked with the ocean-atmosphere phenomenon called the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (also known as ENSO or "El Niño"). Where: Between three countries - Brunei, Malaysia and Indonesia (Kalimantan) This map shows the location of the Borneo Rainforest, located on the equator. This online atlas is designed to help organizations like the ISPO and RSPO improve transparency and accountability of oil palm and pulpwood plantations, as well as help nations and companies keep better track of their zero net deforestation commitments. Among provinces and states on Borneo, Sabah is arguably the furthest along in integrating conservation goals into high-level policy planning. ... with a loss of 324,000 hectares of primary forest. In Malaysia, today the world's largest producer of palm oil, oil palm plantations grew from 60,000 hectares in 1960 to more than 3 million hectares in 2001. Only half of its forest cover remains today, down from 75 per cent in the mid-1980s. and Malingreau J.P.: Forest Cover of Insular Southeast Asia Mapped from Recent Satellite Images of Coarse Spatial Resolution; Ambio Vol. The combination of large-scale deforestation in the lowlands and the importation of millions of people through poorly-executed transmigration programs have made it challenging to a imagine a future where many of Borneo's most biologically diverse forests survive into the next century. People arrived in Borneo around 40,000 years ago and for a long time their impact on the Bornean forests was very limited. Cloud forests are a type of montane forests. Today, over half of Borneo’s forests have disappeared, and the remainder are under threat. Dense tropical forests in Borneo have historically not been prone to fires. Health In Harmony’s mission and that of their Indonesian partner, Alam Sehat Lestari (ASRI), is a difficult one—stopping forest loss in western Borneo, a region with one of the world’s highest deforestation rates. That equates to more than 18,000 square miles of rainforest. From Borneo to the Amazon, many of the world's key rainforests – and endemic species – are currently under threat. Timelapse of Borneo deforestation 2000-2017. Remote Sensing Solutions GmbH & GeoBio Center of Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, in preparation, June 2005, MacKinnon K., Hatta G., Halim H. and Mangalik A.: The Ecology of Kalimantan; Oxford University Press, 1997, Sabah Forestry Department: Forests Resource in Sabah; https://www.sabah.gov.my/htan/data_1/a_toppage_main/frames.htm accessed February 2, 2007, Sarawak Forest Department: Permanent Forests Estate https://www.forestry.sarawak.gov.my/forweb/sfm/pfe.htm accessed February 2, 2007, Stibig H.J. A fundamental problem is that "development" in Borneo is driven by extractive industries. These forests are characterized by certain tree species tolerant of the poor, acidic soil conditions and are considerably "stunted" in comparison with typical rainforests. Langner and Siegert (2005) estimated that just under 30 million hectares of lowland Dipterocarp forest remained in Borneo in 2002. Orangutans, native to the islands of Sumatra and Borneo, are being pushed closer to extinction by deforestation and human negligence. For the villagers of Kampung Buayan, it used to be easy to forget how close the city of Kota Kinabalu is. Land use change has broken the once tightly linked cycle of the ecosystem. Research has indicated that industrial plantation development on peatlands is one of the most important drivers of fire in Borneo. It is said that they are around 130 million years old, the oldest on the planet. Subject to mass deforestation, the remaining Borneo rainforest is one of the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered Bornean Orangutan. Rather than slowing down, deforestation is accelerating and more than 8 million hectares were lost between 2000 and 2010, accounting for 12 percent of its 2000 cover. Fires during the el Niño on 1997-1998 captured the world's attention. Biotic factors (alive things) • Animals – they are affected by the loss of their habitat, the loss of food supply in … Prices & Availability ... their natural habitat is under increasing threat from deforestation. Oil palm is the most productive oil seed in the world. Green to white= forest loss, green to black= forest cleared and converted to plantations in the same year, green to blue= forest permanently flooded by hydropower dams. It doesn’t have to (19 Oct 2020 04:33:12 +0000) ‘We are losing’: Q&A with The Orangutan Project’s Leif Cocks on saving the great ape (19 Aug 2020 06:01:19 +0000) Deforestation. It’s main tools for achieving this are standard setting, certification and labeling of forest products. According to studies from 2014 based on satellite photos, an estimate of more than 30% of the original Bornean rainforests have been cleared within just four decades (1970-2010). The list below is far from being exhaustive! What is the highest deforestation rate during the period 1973-2010 [2], What is the highest proportion of intact forest in Borneo (or primary forest) in 2010 [2]. Is a Sunda clouded leopard a leopard? EYES ON THE FOREST BORNEO DEFORESTATION Asia Pulp & Paper and UPDATE APRIL Groups continued in 2018 to source wood ... rainforest to develop wood fiber plantations at least through 2017.1 Government reports record wood ... indicating deforestation during 2001–2012 and 2013–2017, and remaining natural forest cover. It doesn’t have to, ‘We are losing’: Q&A with The Orangutan Project’s Leif Cocks on saving the great ape, Is a Sunda clouded leopard a leopard? It appears that logging has reduced the local density and biomass of mature trees below some critical threshold that limits masting. : Indonesia - Where have all the forests gone? The impact extends well beyond Borneo with annual fires driving widespread pollution that can spread as far as Australia, China, and India. A visit to the Borneo rainforest really is a once in a lifetime visit. Lowland forests (ie below 500 m asl) and mangroves have suffered the most from this aggressive deforestation [2]. Timber production appears to have shifted to Sarawak (North-western Borneo), where about half the forest cover is scheduled for logging. However, the incredible richness of Borneo’s forests offers the opportunity for a sustainable future for both the wildlife and people of Borneo. Our recent analysis showed that between 1973 and 2010, a total area of 168 493 km2 (or 16.8 million ha) of rainforest in Borneo has been converted to other types of land uses2. Draining and/or burning these areas releases large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Lowland Dipterocarp forests are the most biodiverse and most threatened forests in Borneo. Designated for permanent clearance and conversion, usually for agricultural purposes, Malaysia (states of Sabah and Sarawak) (26.7%), Indonesia (Kalimantan - West, Central, South, and East) (72.6%), Between 1985 and 2001, Kalimantan's protected lowland forests declined by about 56%. Forests not only provide shade, but create their own rainfall, essentially recycling the freshwater in the soil and vegetation. Indonesia's Kutai National Park was established in 1936 as a 306,000 hectare preserve, but suffered from reductions in extent, large-scale illegal logging, and encroachment. A recent study finds that massive deforestation across Borneo, in large part for oil palm plantations, has led to higher temperatures and less precipitation over the past 60 years. The rapid deforestation in Borneo is life-threatening to local wildlife and humans alike. Conservation was particularly hard in tropical countries.- 2019’s worst trends for forests mostly continued through the pandemic including widespread forest fires, rising commodity prices, increasing repression and violence against environmental defenders, and new laws and policies in Brazil and Indonesia that undermine forest conservation.- We don’t yet have numbers on the degree to which the pandemic affected deforestation, because it generally takes several months to process that data. Health In Harmony’s mission and that of their Indonesian partner, Alam Sehat Lestari (ASRI), is a difficult one—stopping forest loss in western Borneo, a region with one of the world’s highest deforestation … Video: The Sumatran rhino is sliding into extinction. 42% of intact forests fall under “production forests” and will be logged as the area of forest that falls under exploitation is greater than protected forests. Our research focuses on identifying the best tree species for replanting and optimal … Historically, deforestation in Borneo was minimal due to infertile soils, an unfavourable climate, and the presence of disease. In terms of plant and animal species, the Bornean rainforests are the richest terrestrial ecosystem in the world. Orang utans are being made extinct and their once beautiful natural habitat is being destroyed by greed and the relentless expansion of the palm oil industry. Environment and Social Development East Asia and Pacific Region. The leading reason for deforestation in Borneo is largely subsistence and agro-industrial agriculture. 32 No 7, Nov. 2003, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2003, The World Bank: Indonesia: Environment and Natural Resource Management in a Time of Transition, February 2001, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre: https://www.wcmc.org accessed February 2, 2007, WWF: Borneo's Lost World: Newly Discovered Species on Borneo; written by Pio D. and D'Cruz R. (ed) for WWF, April 2005. It is also an important refuge for the Asian Elephant, the Sumatran Rhinoceros, the and the Bornean Clouded Leopard. Dolphins face growing pressure as development eats into Borneo’s interior (02 Dec 2020 08:59:18 +0000) Kalimantan on the Indonesian island of Borneo is home to some of the oldest tropical rainforest in the world. Borneo Rainforest Adventure Borneo from £3,099 per person. Being realistic about coal mine rehabilitation in Indonesia: An ecological perspective (23 Dec 2020 07:36:27 +0000) Forest Natural preservation. Historically, deforestation in Borneo was minimal due to infertile soils, an unfavourable climate, and the presence of disease. Fires in 1997-1998 burned 92% of the park's area. Borneo is divided among three countries—Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia—and at approximately 130 million years old, the Borneo rainforests are some of the oldest in the world. For the first time, clear, transparent and precise figure about deforestation rates and extent in Borneo are made available. A single hectare of oil palm may yield 5,000 kilograms of crude oil, or nearly 6,000 liters of crude, making the crop remarkably profitable when grown in large plantations. - An area of forest roughly the size of California was cleared across the tropics and subtropics between 2004 and 2017 largely for commercial agriculture, finds a new assessment published by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).- The report looks at the state of forests and causes of deforestation in 24 “active deforestation fronts”, which account for over half of all tropical and subtropical deforestation that occurred over the 14-year period. For example, protected areas in Sabah, a state in Malaysian Borneo, have generally fared better than reserves in Indonesia, where illegal logging, encroachment, and poaching can be frequent. Other causes for deforestation are also linked to human development and include mining (for coal or for gold and other minerals), infrastructure development (roads, human settlements, etc.) They also serve to significantly buffer flooding, to maintain water quality and to sustain local communities and indigenous people. Instead of el Niño years being times of plenty, they are now plagued by raging infernos and severe air pollution. Deforestation began in earnest during the mid-twentieth century with the establishment of rubber plantations, though these had a … Oil palm cultivation has increased from 186,744 hectares in Sabah and Sarawak in 1984 to 1,673,721 hectares at the close of 2003. Drained peatlands are also highly susceptible to combustion. But that has changed since the early 1980s with increased degradation of forests and peatlands, which has created conditions that exacerbate fire risk. Later forests in the southern part of Borneo, an area belonging to Indonesia and known as Kalimantan, became the primary source for tropical timber. In Borneo, only half of the forest cover … JAKARTA — The Indonesian government has denied that deforestation for oil palm plantations and coal mines contributed to a recent deadly flood in southern Borneo. Surveys have found more than 700 species of trees in a 10 hectare plot — a number equal to the total number of trees in Canada and the United States combined. There are seven distinct ecoregions in Borneo. “Only half of Borneo’s forest cover remains today, down from 75 per cent in the mid-1980s. The analysis identifies 24 “deforestation fronts” worldwide where a total of 43 million hectares of forest was destroyed in the period from 2004 until 2017. Industrial logging rose in the 1970s as Malaysia depleted its peninsular forests, and former Indonesian strongman Suharto distributed large tracts of forest to cement political relationships with army generals. Up to 90 percent of deforestation in Borneo is carried out illegally. The hot spots are located in the Amazon, the Atlantic Forest and Gran Chaco, Borneo, the Cerrado, Choco-Darien, the Congo Basin, East Africa, Eastern Australia, Greater Mekong, New Guinea, … People arrived in Borneo around 40,000 years ago and for a long time their impact on the Bornean forests [2] was very limited. Borneo is burning. Logging expanded significantly in the 1980s, Why oil palm is replacing tropical rainforests, California-sized area of forest lost in just 14 years, How the pandemic impacted rainforests in 2020: a year in review, Being realistic about coal mine rehabilitation in Indonesia: An ecological perspective, Dolphins face growing pressure as development eats into Borneo’s interior, ‘Certified’ palm oil linked to worse social, ecological outcomes for Indonesian villagers, Activists in Malaysia call on road planners to learn the lessons of history, Conservationists replant legal palm oil plantation with forest in Borneo, Video: The Sumatran rhino is sliding into extinction. Peat swamp forests are the dominant form of remaining lowland forest in Borneo today. Timelapse of Borneo deforestation 2000-2017. Logging in Borneo in the 1980s and 1990s was some of the most intensive the world has ever seen, with 60-240 cubic meters of wood being harvested per hectare versus 23 cubic meters per hectare in the Amazon. Fire is also a factor. Mawas, as the area is called, is located in the centre of Borneo and is home to more than 2,500 wild orangutans, who are now able to live in freedom in a protected forest area. Today most of these habitats have been converted to other types of land-uses. Palm oil is literally everywhere – in our foods, cosmetics, cleaning products and fuels. Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of the ubiquitous oil, which is found in nearly every household item from bread to chocolate to shampoo. While much of this new land brought under cultivation is less than ideal for oil palm, the crop's low maintenance, combined with growing demand and lack of other viable economic options in the region, make it a low-risk investment for large estate owners. How bad is deforestation? Headhunters ruled the remote parts of the island until a century ago. The analysis identifies 24 “deforestation fronts” worldwide where a total of 43 million hectares of forest was destroyed in the period from 2004 until 2017. It is the 3rd largest island on the planet Earth. Conservationists replant legal palm oil plantation with forest in Borneo (09 Nov 2020 12:45:50 +0000) Cannot be logged, Forests that can be logged for local consumption, Forests that serve environmental functions. EYES ON THE FOREST BORNEO DEFORESTATION Asia Pulp & Paper and UPDATE APRIL Groups continued in 2018 to source wood ... rainforest to develop wood fiber plantations at least through 2017.1 Government reports record wood ... indicating deforestation during 2001–2012 and 2013–2017, and remaining natural forest cover. ‘Certified’ palm oil linked to worse social, ecological outcomes for Indonesian villagers (30 Nov 2020 18:59:37 +0000) When fires are set for land-clearing purposes, they can quickly spread out-of-control into adjacent areas, including healthy forests. Logging expanded significantly in the 1980s, with logging roads providing access to remote lands for settlers and developers. Initially most of the timber was taken from the Malaysian part of the island in the northern states of Sabah and Sarawak. Conservation Biology, pp.249-254 Volume 18, No1, February 2004, Global Forest Watch, Global Forest Watch Indonesia, World Resources Institute: The State of the Forest, Indonesia, 2002, Government of Sabah: https://www.sabah.gov.mv, Government of Sarawak: https://www.sarawak.gov.mv, Holmes, D.A. Borneo, especially Kalimantan, has also been heavily affect by peat fires set for land-clearing purposes. The rainforest of Borneo is rich in many valuable natural resources. - Every Tuesday, Mongabay brings you a new episode of Candid Animal Cam, our show featuring animals caught on camera traps around the world and hosted by Romi Castagnino, our writer and conservation scientist. Without access to electricity, life in a small indigenous community tucked away deep in Borneo’s rainforest could feel far removed from the bustling markets and gleaming hotels in the capital of … The name Borneo itself is a Western reference first used by the Dutch during their colonial rule of the island. Palm oil plantations, the most important tropical vegetable oil in the global oils and fats industry, is the main driver of deforestation in Borneo. As in many tropical areas around the world, Borneo’s rainforests are being cut and degraded for timber, palm oil, pulp, rubber and minerals. Save the Orangutan therefore supports patrolling of the protected rainforest areas. Deforestation in Borneo was historically low due to infertile soils (relative to surrounding islands), unfavorable climate, and the presence of disease. A further 16% of these intact forests will be converted. Unable to support themselves with subsistence agriculture, many of these people went to work for logging companies. Candid Animal Cam heads to Southeast Asia, Watershed and other "functional" forests. Indeed, recent studies show that orang-utans [4] as well as many other species [5] can survive in slightly logged forests or in forest exploited under sustainable practices. Trees in these forests are typically shorter than those of lowland forest, resulting in a less-developed forest canopy. This online atlas is designed to help organizations like the ISPO and RSPO improve transparency and accountability of oil palm and pulpwood plantations, as well as help nations and companies keep better track of their zero net deforestation … Montane forests are generally found at an elevation from 900 meters to 3300 meters in Borneo. Intensive forest clearing has caused an ecological disaster in the … In the 1980s and 1990s Borneo underwent a remarkable transition. The hot spots are located in the Amazon, the Atlantic Forest and Gran Chaco, Borneo, the Cerrado, Choco-Darien, the Congo Basin, East Africa, Eastern Australia, Greater Mekong, New Guinea, and Sumatra. When it comes to rainforest deforestation, Borneo is right up there in notoriety with the Amazon. During a "Dipterocarp year" in Kalimantan, the canopy bursts into color as countless emergent Dipterocarp trees — each of which may have 4 million flowers — bloom during a six-week period, a strategy that intermittently starves and swamps seed predators so that at least some seeds survive to germination. Enjoy lunch at a local restaurant today, then visit the Rainforest Discovery Centre, a local bastion of environmental education. Deforestation in Borneo was historically low due to infertile soils (relative to surrounding islands), unfavorable climate, and the presence of disease. Up to 420 million acres of forest could be lost between 2010 and 2030 in these "deforestation fronts" if current trends continue. Sabah has the highest proportion of forest under some form of protection and the government is starting to work to encourage a knowledge-based services economy over an extractive one. - The ecosystems of East Kalimantan province in Indonesian Borneo face increasing pressure due to mining, logging, industrial agriculture, infrastructure projects, and a plan to establish a new administrative capital city.- One of the species imperiled by this rapid transformation is the Irrawaddy dolphin.- Estuarine populations of the species already face severely negative impacts from increasing shipping traffic and coastal development in Balikpapan Bay.- A critically endangered population of freshwater Irrawaddy dolphins living in the middle reaches of the Mahakam River are also under increasing pressure due to climate change, oil palm cultivation, coal mining and transport. Though it was first planted in Indonesia in 1848, it wasn't until the mid-1990s that oil palm cultivation really started to accelerate. Palm oil is derived from the plant's fruit, which grow in clusters that may weigh 40-50 kilograms. There is more money in the Borneo rainforest’s biodiversity than in the deforestation of it. However, forest degradation and deforestation affects all areas around Mawas. Borneo is the third largest island in the world. Indigenous people on the island of Borneo are up in arms over continued deforestation, which has left their once lush environment a mere shadow of its former self. According to Curran, more timber exported was from Borneo during that time than from Latin America and Africa combined. Heath or kerangas forest are found on well-drained, sandy soils that are extremely nutrient-poor ("kerangas" is the indigenous Iban word for "land that will not grow rice"). A few links with interesting facts and views about tropical deforestation. With a current deforestation rate of 1.3 million hectares per year, only peat and montane forests would survive in the coming years,” the WWF warns. Today the forests of Borneo are but a shadow of those of legend and those that remain are rapidly being converted to industrial oil palm and timber plantations. In 2004, 30% of these of these were located in Sabah, which has ideal growing conditions for the plant, and 13% were in Sarawak. In 10 years, from the beginning of 2010 to the end of 2019, Indonesia lost almost 5.9 million hectares of humid primary forest (Global Forest Watch). A sharp increase in the incidence of fires in an ecosystem that is accustomed to fire has exacerbated drought stress and forest die-off. 'S peat forests burn 2005 ) estimated that just under 30 million hectares heath. The mainland caused extinctions and speciation of fauna on the indonesian island of Borneo s loss! 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