The demonstrators gave flowers to the soldiers that surrounded the Maidan and played music for them. The campaign began in response to the fraudulent presidential elections and the campaigners demanded new, fair, and fraud-free elections. In December 2012 sitting Prime Minister Azarov formed a government with the support of Communist and independent deputies. In the runoff the following month, Yanukovych was declared the winner, though Yushchenko’s supporters charged fraud and staged mass protests that came to be known as the Orange Revolution. When Ukraine cohosted the UEFA European Championship football (soccer) tournament in summer 2012, a number of EU countries registered their concern for Tymoshenko by boycotting the event. One important factor that has influenced both events is international intervention by Russia, the NOW 50% OFF! Nevertheless, on December 3 the Supreme Court ruled the election invalid and ordered a new runoff for December 26. In exchange, Ukraine would receive a reduction in the price of Russian natural gas. Prime Minister Yanukovych’s supporters also held demonstrations, especially in the south and east. Ukraine - Ukraine - The Orange Revolution and the Yushchenko presidency: The presidential election of 2004 brought Ukraine to the brink of disintegration and civil war. Despite the confrontational nature and huge size of demonstrations, the pro-Yushchenko campaigners were determinedly nonviolent, with organizers like Pora having been influenced by the writings of Gene Sharp. Protestors clad in orange, Yushchenko’s campaign colour, took to the streets, and the country endured nearly two weeks of demonstrations. In 2011 former prime minister Tymoshenko, the country’s most popular politician, was convicted of abuse of power in connection with a 2009 natural gas deal with Russia and given a seven-year prison sentence. A lion's share of Internet access was generated by residents of Kiev and other major cities--where the civic protest became the most widespread and opposition the most determined. Vladimir Putin. In order to support the presence in Kiev of demonstrators from around the country, the campaigners took over public buildings, offered private homes, and set up open kitchens. More and more Ukrainians joined the protests every day. Displays of flags and symbolic colors, 150. In October the president dissolved parliament. Orange Revolution, Ukraine, 2004. Political turmoil occupied the first few years of Yushchenko’s presidency. In 2010, then- President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych reverted these changes on the basis of a … As the Yanukovych administration continued its pivot towards Moscow, EU leaders expressed concern about the preservation of the rule of law in Ukraine. The regime attempted to suppress the Orange Revolution using security forces. Vladimir Putin. The Yushchenko supporters continued their mass demonstrations in Kiev, with numbers nearing one million people. This run-off vote took place on November 21, 2004, and official results from Kuchma’s government showed that Yanukovych had won by 3%. Tulip Revolution, Kyrgyzstan, 2005. Because neither had won a majority of votes, a runoff poll was held on February 7. Ukraine's 1994 Elections as an Economic Event, by Robert S. Kravchuk and Victor Chudowsky Regime Type and Politics in Ukraine under Kuchma, by Taras Kuzio Rapacious Individualism and Political Competition in Ukraine, 1992-2004, by Lucan A. Although international observers determined that the poll had been fair, Tymoshenko declared the results fraudulent and refused to recognize Yanukovych’s victory; she and her supporters boycotted the inauguration of Yanukovych on February 25. By November 2004, Ukraine, with a population of 48 million people, boasted some 6 million distinct users accessing the Internet. These demonstrators formed a sea of orange, the color of Yushchenko’s campaign, by wearing orange ribbons and carrying orange flags. President Kuchma had ordered 10,000 troops, stationed outside Kiev, to attack the demonstrators, but the Ukrainian intelligence services defied Kuchma's orders and prevented the attack. The next prime minister, Yury Yekhanurov, stayed in office only until January 2006. Demonstration in Kiew during mass protests against the election fraud in Ukraine, 2004-11-28 The "Orange Revolution" in Independence Square, Kiev, Ukraine, november, 2004 symbol of solidarity with democratic movement in Ukraine people on streets "Ukraine together" - Yushchenko Miners that favored Yanukovych made their way to Kiev, but they were largely outnumbered by the pro-Yushchenko demonstrators. Kiev, and other cities in the Central and Western regions of the country. The 2004 Orange Revolution in Ukraine was a massive demonstration of people for democracy and against electoral fraud. The first color revolution took place in Georgia in … Ukrainians overthrow dictatorship (Orange Revolution), 2004, Included Participation by More Than One Social Class, 005. These demonstrators congregated in the Maidan, Kiev’s main square. In 2004-2005 mass protests lasting for two months - the Orange Revolution - helped bring to power pro-Western President Viktor Yushchenko, who … It was just after 2 a.m. on November 22, 2004, when the call went out: “The time has come to defend your life and Ukraine. In February 2012 Tymoshenko’s interior minister, Yuri Lutsenko, also was convicted of abuse of power and sentenced to four years in prison. Leaders and Partners participated from the very beginning. The Global Nonviolent Action Database is a project of Swarthmore College, including the Peace and Conflict Studies Program, the Peace Collection, and the Lang Center for Civic and Social Responsibility. On January 22 two protesters were killed in skirmishes with police, and demonstrations soon spread to eastern Ukraine, a region that traditionally had supported Yanukovych and closer ties with Russia. The Global Nonviolent Action Database is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license unless otherwise noted. Yanukovych’s supporters in the east threatened to secede from Ukraine if the results were annulled. Since its independence in 1991, Ukraine has gone through two major upheavals in its transition to democracy, the Orange Revolution in 2004 and the Euromaidan in 2014. The election was held in a highly charged political atmosphere, with allegations of media bias, voter intimidationand a poisoning o… Several other cities also refused to recognize the results of the election, believing Yushchenko to be the true winner. In the parliamentary election in October 2012, the ruling Party of Regions emerged as the single largest bloc, with 185 seats. However, the October 31 election yielded no winner, with each candidate receiving about 40% of the votes. President Yanukovych gained greater executive authority later in 2010 when the Constitutional Court overturned the 2006 reform that had enhanced the powers of the prime minister. When all votes had been counted—this time without manipulation—Yushchenko won, 52% to Yanukovych’s 44%. The following week Tymoshenko’s government was felled by a vote of no confidence and Mykola Azarov of the Party of Regions was installed as prime minister. Parliamentary elections early that year saw Yushchenko’s Our Ukraine party finish third, behind Yanukovych’s Party of Regions and the Yuliya Tymoshenko Bloc. The presidential election of 2004 brought Ukraine to the brink of disintegration and civil war. Ukraine's "orange revolution" is a genuine outpouring of popular sentiment for freedom and justice. 2014 February - Maidan Revolution ousts pro-Kremlin government over … The runoff results were split largely along regional lines, with most of western Ukraine supporting Tymoshenko and most of the east favouring Yanukovych. And each morning and night, a multi-denominational religious service was held in the square. 2004 Presidential Election - Orange Revolution. Dual sovereignty and parallel government, 147. Banners, posters, and displayed communications, 018. In this rendition of Ukrainian history, the 2004 Orange revolution was the first attempt of the Ukrainian people to assert their sovereignty and pro-western leanings. The incumbent president, Leonid Kuchma, had personally chosen Yanukovych as his successor, but their political party was losing popular support. These changes are sometimes erroneously referred to as the "2004 Constitution". In the first round of the presidential election, on October 31, Yushchenko and Yanukovych both won about two-fifths of the vote. Ukraine's 2004 Orange Revolution might look different from the 2014 ongoing riots in Kiev, but many of the players are the same. On December 26, 2004, observers from around the world monitored the elections in order to prevent fraud. Rose Revolution, Georgia, 2003. Cleared to seek a third term as president by the Constitutional Court, Kuchma instead endorsed the candidacy of Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych, who was also strongly supported by Russian Pres. Winning 48.95 percent of the vote—a narrow lead over Tymoshenko’s 45.47 percent—Yanukovych took the presidency. One of the most tragic events for Ukrainians was the struggle for justice, which began seven years ago with protest rallies on Maidan Nezalezhnosti, or Independence Square, in the center of Kyiv. On December 1, the parliament joined the side of the campaigners, passing a vote of no-confidence in Prime Minister Yanukovych ‘s government. The next day 500,000 people in Kiev marched to the parliament building. Ukraine's 2004 presidential election was the most important event in Ukraine since independence was achieved in 1991. The “Orange Revolution” by Ukrainians was successful. In 2004, amendments were adopted that significantly changed Ukraine's political system. Third, the events in November 2004 forever changed relations between Ukraine and Russia. As the government continued to balance the often conflicting goals of maintaining positive relations with Russia and gaining membership in the EU, dissent between Yushchenko and Tymoshenko contributed to the collapse of their coalition in September 2008. Many observers believed both trials were politically motivated. Yushchenko, supported by a united opposition, was expected to win the election. Yushchenko—running on an anticorruption, anticronyism platform—emerged as the leading opposition candidate, but his campaign was prevented from visiting Yanukovych’s stronghold of Donetsk and other eastern cities. Exit polls, on the other hand, showed Yushchenko winning by 11%. A year has passed since the start of Ukraine's "Revolution of Honour". Once again the president’s party finished behind both Yanukovych’s and Tymoshenko’s parties. Furthermore, on November 24, the Central Election Commission announced Yanukovych as the winner, sparking even greater anger from the pro-Yushchenko groups. In April 2010, following a fractious parliamentary debate, Ukraine agreed to extend Russia’s lease of the port at Sevastopol, originally set to expire in 2017, until 2042. Presidential elections were held in Ukraine on 31 October, 21 November and 26 December 2004. Yushchenko, in a largely symbolic act, entered parliament and took the presidential oath. In what was widely seen as an attempt to thaw relations with the EU, Yanukovych pardoned the imprisoned Lutsenko and ordered his release in April 2013. The end of November is when the Orange Revolution started in 2004 and the Revolution of Dignity in 2013. On November 28, a high up government official (either the Interior Minister or the Chief of Staff) ordered troops to move in on the demonstrators. Challenging the validity of the results, Tymoshenko embarked on a hunger strike. With new fair elections the campaigners expected presidential candidate Viktor Yushchenko to win. In September Yushchenko’s health began to fail, and medical tests later revealed he had suffered dioxin poisoning (allegedly carried out by the Ukrainian State Security Service), which left his face disfigured. On December 26, 2004, observers from around the world monitored the elections in order to prevent fraud. 2004 - Orange Revolution mass protests force pro-European change of government. Although international observers called attention to irregularities in some contests, the European Parliament characterized the election as comparatively fair, and the main opposition parties accepted the official results. The Maidan became a site for speeches and musical entertainment in conjunction with the political protest. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! When a proposed coalition of the so-called Orange parties in the parliament fell apart, Yushchenko was forced to accept his rival Yanukovych as prime minister. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. As the campaign grew, Yushchenko set up the Committee of National Salvation and called for a national strike until the true results of the election were honored. None known. The last time they did this, in November 2004, the result was the prolonged international incident that became known as the Orange Revolution. This perception was supported by evidence of ballot manipulation. It was also influenced by an earlier campaign in Ukraine: Ukrainians protest for regime change (Ukraine Without Kuchma), 2000-2003 (1). Motivated by many factors, Russia’s aggression in Ukraine has triggered the greatest security crisis in Europe since the Cold War. Today, the country appears to be on the front lines of a renewed great-power rivalry that many analysts say will dominate international relations in the decades ahead. Noncooperation by constituent governmental units, 198. Presidential candidate Viktor Yushchenko and Politician Yulia Tymoshenko. Literature and speeches advocating resistance, Opponent, Opponent Responses, and Violence, Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International. The Ukrainian government further improved relations with Russia in June 2010, when it officially abandoned its goal of joining NATO—a pursuit Russia had opposed. Ukraine has long played an important, yet sometimes overlooked, role in the global security order. But U.S. policymakers were on high alert in November … Although Yanukovych challenged the validity of the results, Yushchenko was inaugurated on January 23, 2005. Citizens in other parts of the country also held local protests, demonstrations, and strikes. The ensuing power struggle between the president and the prime minister, whose political role had been enhanced by a constitutional reform that took effect in 2006, led Yushchenko to call for another round of parliamentary elections in 2007. Deliberate inefficiency and selective noncooperation by enforcement agents, 122. This campaign was influenced by the democracy campaign in Serbia in 2000 (see “Serbians overthrow Milosevic (Bulldozer Revolution), 2000”) and the Rose Revolution in Georgia (see “Georgians overthrow a dictator (Rose Revolution), 2003”). His first cabinet served only until September 2005, when he dismissed all his ministers, including Prime Minister Yuliya Tymoshenko, a fellow leader of the Orange Revolution. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The 2004 elections and Orange Revolution A lot happened in Ukraine in the decade that followed. Ukraine: A History, 4th ed. These events have changed Ukraine's history. The campaigners were successful in gaining an open and fair run-off vote in which Yushchenko was determined as the next president of Ukraine. Way The Ukrainian Orange Revolution Brought More than a New President: What Kind of Democracy Will the It was both a symbol and a symptom of the revolution that rippled across Ukraine last week. The last stages of the election were contested between the opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko and the incumbent Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych from the Party of Regions. 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